Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of TEFL, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate of TEFL, University of Tehran, Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran


While a growing body of research has attempted to analyze how voice is deployed in argumentative writing, much work remains to be done in instructing voice elements. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of instruction based on Martin and White’s (2005) Engagement framework and Hyland’s (2008) interactional model on voice construction. To this end, a control group (20) and two treatment groups (40) were selected. The treatment groups received sessions of teaching voice elements, each based on a different model. The gain score analysis and the SPANOVA were employed to analyze the change in the use of voice elements between the treatment groups and the control group after the treatment. The results indicated that EFL learners could benefit from instruction in both treatment groups. However, learners who were aware of voice based on the Engagement framework could construct more considerable defensive voice in making an argument challenging. Findings from this study could provide implications for teaching by broadening instructors’ knowledge of voice to cultivate learners’ awareness of voice and help them to employ it effectively in IELTS writing task 2.
Keywords: Argumentative writing, IELTS writing task 2, voice, instructing voice


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