Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.A. Graduate of Applied Linguistics, English Department, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, English Department, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student of Applied Linguistics, English Department, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran


In this study, the researchers intended to screen English language learning perceptions on four relational contexts including language learners’ family members, English teachers, classmates and their best friends. To this aim, a group of Iranian adolescents (no=38), with an age range of 12-16 were randomly selected from three language institutes located in Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi. The researchers distributed a modified version of a validated questionnaire by Taylor (2010) titled Quadripolar Model of Identity (TQMI) to investigate variability of the learners’ perceptions for 1)learning English with regard to four relational contexts above and 2) their insights over two conceived selves including public and imposed self. Findings indicated that within diverse characterizations of personality types, the preferences for including “family members” in the learning processes and future functioning were conspicuous. As to respondents’ preferences towards achieving their goals in learning English regarding their two selves (public and imposed), it became clear that the level of imposing on the part of “language teachers” and “families” on the learners was roughly the same in both present and future self categorization presentations and in the public self, again family members had more rates. Finally, the results from the data on the relationship between two aspects of identity (imposed vs. public), and language learning success, measures represented a significant relationship for only imposed identity indicators. Implications for overall recognition of other-related people in the language learning processes were discussed in the end.


Aliakbari, M., & Amiri, M. (2018). Foreign language identity and Iranian learners’ achievement: A relational approach. System76, 80-90.
Baquedano-López, P., & Kattan, S. (2008). Language socialization in schools. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2729-2741.
Bilton, R., Jackson, A., & Hymer, B. (2017). Not just communication: Parent-teacher conversations in an English high school. School Community Journal27(1), 231-256.
Busse, V. (2013). An exploration of motivation and self-beliefs of first year students of German. System41(2), 379-398.
Castillo, R., & Camelo, L. C. (2013). Assisting your child's learning in L2 is like teaching them to ride a bike: A study on parental involvement. GIST–Education and Learning Research Journal, (7), 54-73.
Chen, C. T., Kyle, D. W., & McIntyre, E. (2008). Helping teachers work effectively with English language learners and their families. School Community Journal18(1), 7-20.
Christenson, S. L., & Reschly, A. L. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of school-family partnerships. New York, NY: Routledge.
Dastgoshadeh, A. (2018). Developing a model of teachers’ possible selves for the Iranian context. Teaching Language Skills, 33(37), 73-96.
Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (Eds.) (2009). Motivation, language identity, and the L2 self. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1993). Parent-school involvement during the early adolescent years. Teachers College Record, 94(3), 568-587.
Enever, J., & Moon, J. (2009). New global contexts for teaching Primary ELT: Change and challenge. In J. Enever, J. Moon, and U. Raman (Eds), Young Learner English Language Policy and Implementation: International Perspectives, (pp. 5-21). Reading: Garnet Education.
Epstein, J. L., & Connors, L. J. (1992). School and family partnerships. Practitioner18(4), n4.
Finders, M., & Lewis, C. (1994). Why some parents don't come to school. Educational Leadership, 51(8),50-54.
Gaitan, C. D. (2004). Involving Latino families in schools: Raising student achievement through home-school partnerships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Greenwood, G. E., & Hickman, C. W. (1991). Research and practice in parent involvement: Implications for teacher education. The Elementary School Journal91(3), 279-288.
Gubbins, V., & Otero, G. (2020). Determinants of parental involvement in primary school: Evidence from Chile. Educational Review72(2), 137-156.
Holmes, J. (2008). An introduction to sociolinguistics (3rd Ed.). London: Longman.
Honig, A. S. (1979). Parent involvement in early childhood education (Vol. 1934). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
 Hornby, G., & Blackwell, I. (2018). Barriers to parental involvement in education: an update. Educational Review70(1), 109-119.
Jamshidi, S., Rezaei, S., Hassanzadeh, M., & Dehqan, M. (2019). Development and validation of an authorial identity model and questionnaire: A factor analytic approach. Issues in Language Teaching8(2), 243-273.
Johnston, B. (2008). Values in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kalaycı, G., & Öz, H. (2018). Parental involvement in English language education: Understanding parents’ perceptions. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 5(4), 832-847. Retrieved from:
Katyal, K. R., & Evers, C. W. (2007). Parents—partners or clients? A reconceptualization of home–school interactions. Teaching Education, 18(1), 61-76.
Lantolf, J. P., Thorne, S. L., & Poehner, M. E. (2015). Sociocultural theory and second language development. In B. van Patten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 207-226). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lee, W. (2011). Views and experiences of English language education for young learners in South Korea: Has the Korean government achieved its goal in introducing English language to public primary school. Asian EFL Journal, 56(4), 16-29.
Le Roux, S. G. (2016). The role of family literacy programs to support emergent literacy in young learners (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of South Africa, Pretoria. Retrieved from:
Leary, M. R. (2007). Motivational and emotional aspects of the self. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 317-344.
Lemmer, E. M. (2012). Who’s doing the talking? Teacher and parent experiences of parent-teacher conferences. South African Journal of Education32(1), 83-96.
Lemmer, E. M. (2013). The parent-teacher relationship as partnership: A conceptual analysis. Journal for Christian Scholarship, 49(1-2), 25-54.
Linse, C. (2011). Korean parental beliefs about ELT from the perspective of teachers. TESOL Journal, 2(4), 473–491.
Meier, C., & Lemmer, E. (2018). Parents as consumers: A case study of parent satisfaction with the quality of schooling. Educational Review, 71(4): 1-14.
Moreno, A. I., Rey-Rocha, J., Burgess, S., López-Navarro, I., & Sachdev, I. (2012). Spanish researchers’ perceived difficulty writing research articles for English-medium journals: The impact of proficiency in English versus publication experience. Ibérica, 24, 157-183.
Nunan, D. (2003). The impact of English as a global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia–Pacific region. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 589–613.
Ochs, E., & Schieffelin, B. (2017). Language socialization: An historical overview. In P. A. Duff, & S. May (Eds.), Language Socialization: Encyclopedia of Language and Education, (pp. 1-14), doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-02327-4_1-1.
Omidian, M. (2010). Identity from the viewpoint of psychology. Yazd: Yazd University Publications.
Park, S., & Holloway, S. (2018). Parental involvement in adolescents' education: An examination of the interplay among school factors, parental role construction, and family income. School Community Journal28(1), 9-36.
Rahiminezhad, A., & Ahmadi, A. A. (2006). An analytic study of identity formation by Iranian adolescents and its relation with social, economic and educational structure of family among high school students in Tehran. Tehran: Training Department for Ministry of Education and Training.
Razmjoo, A. (2010). Language and identity in the Iranian context: The impact of identity aspects on EFL learners’ achievement. Teaching Language Skills, 3(2), 99-122.
Sahagun, L. (2015). The importance of building parent-teacher relationships. Reading Horizons. Retrieved from:
Shamshiri, B. (2008). Introduction to national identity. Shiraz: Novid Publications.
Shannon, S. M., & Milian, M. (2002). Parents choose dual language programs in Colorado: A survey. Bilingual Research Journal26(3), 681-696.
Smit, F., & Driessen, G. (2009). Creating effective family-school partnerships in highly diverse contexts: Building partnership models and constructing parent typologies. In R. Deslandes (Ed.), International perspectives on contexts, communities and evaluated innovative practices: Family-school-community partnerships (pp. 64-81). New York, NY: Routledge.
Soltanian, N., Ghapanchi, Z., Rezaei, S., & Pishghadam, R. (2018). Quantifying investment in language learning: Model and questionnaire development and validation in the Iranian context. Issues in Language Teaching7(1), 25-56.
Taylor, F. (2013). Self and identity in adolescent foreign language learning (Vol. 70). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
van Knippenberg, D., & Hogg, M. A. (2018). Social identifications in organizational behavior. In D. L. Ferris, R. E. Johnson, and C. Sedikides (Eds.), SIOP organizational frontiers series. The self at work: Fundamental theory and research, (pp. 72–90). New York, NY: Routledge.
Willemse, T. M., Thompson, I., Vanderlinde, R., & Mutton, T. (2018). Family-school partnerships: A challenge for teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 44(3), 252-257.
Yolles, M., & Di Fatta, D. (2017). Modelling identity types through agency: Part 1: Defragmenting identity theory. Kybernetes, 46(6), 1068-1084.