Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Candidate of TEFL, Sheikhbahaee University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Professor of Applied Linguistics, Sheikhbahaee University, Isfahan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, Sheikhbahaee University, Isfahan, Iran


Recent interdisciplinary studies have revealed that hope plays a key role in academic achievement and job performance. Due to the paucity of research on the interface of hope and second or foreign (L2) language teaching, for the first time, this paper sets out to develop a categorical conceptualization of hope for teaching English as a foreign language (EFL). While an exploratory mixed-methods research was designed, using observation and in-depth interviews, grounded-based qualitative data were obtained from experienced Iranian EFL teachers until the theoretical saturation of data was achieved. Thirty-eight items linked to seven main categories were identified. To judge the validation of the qualitative findings, a 38-item questionnaire of hope for EFL teaching was designed and then piloted. Next, to test the generalizability of the piloting-phase findings, the modified 35-item questionnaire of hope for EFL teaching was administered to a convenience sample of 228 EFL teachers from three Iranian provinces of Tehran, Chaharmahal Bakhtiari, and Isfahan. Statistical analyses of the testing data confirmed that 35 items are attached to seven broad underlying components of hope for EFL teaching. Therefore, the main factors, including interpersonal relationship, social purpose, goal-setting, emotion, certainty, source, and anticipated effort were confirmed. Further, the explanatory power of all the items involved in developing hope for EFL teaching was tested and estimated. The findings can shed more light on developing educational interventionist programs which can lead EFL teachers into higher levels of hope for EFL teaching.


Main Subjects

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