Document Type : Research Paper


Department of English Language Teaching, Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, Tehran-Iran



The current study undertook to explore the interplay of motivational/attitudinal variables and second language (L2) learners’ motivated behavior through the lens of a revised model of L2 self-guides. This new model reconceptualizes Dornyei’s (2005, 2009) original motivational self-system into a five-factor model consisting of the bifurcated ideal and ought-to L2 selves (i.e., ideal L2 self/own, ideal L2 self/other, ought L2 self/own and ought L2 self/other) and L2 learning experience. In addition, two important antecedents of L2 self-guides (i.e., instrumentality-promotion and instrumentality-prevention) were also included in the new model. Data were collected from 856 students of English as a foreign language (EFL) at six Iranian universities. Fitness of the new model was supported by structural equation modeling (SEM) and all the paths were shown to be significant. Furthermore, SEM results indicated that ideal L2 self/own was the strongest factor predicting motivated behavior (considering its total effects). L2 learning experience and ought-to L2 self/own were the second and third predicting factors in terms of the magnitude of their effects respectively. The study provides a more nuanced understanding of learners’ motivational self system in foreign or second language learning.


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