Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student of Department of Foreign Languages, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor of Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor of Department of TEFL, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Tehran, Iran



Attention plays a vital role in education. Children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from impairing levels of inattention. ADHD is a relatively common childhood disorder (Scahill & Schwab-Stone, 2000), which, if left untreated, results in adverse consequences (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This necessitates employing attention-training methods, such as neurofeedback training (NFT). But although conventional, NFT is expensive and time-consuming; therefore, the need for finding other methods is felt. The total physical response (TPR) method can provide a suitable venue for teaching young learners with ADHD (Nunan, 2011). Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the comparative effects of NFT and TPR on ADHD young learners’ attention. To do so, 16 students with ADHD were selected from a school in Shahryar. They were randomly assigned to NFT and TPR groups, receiving these treatments for twenty sessions, respectively. The Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA+Plus) was used as the pre- and post-test to measure full, auditory, and visual attention. To answer the research questions investigating the comparative effects of NFT and TPR on ADHD young learners’ attention, non-parametric one-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted. Moreover, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used to explore within-group differences. The results indicated significant improvements for both groups. Nevertheless, NFT was found to be more effective regarding full and auditory attention. Concerning visual attention, both treatments were similarly effective. The findings suggest both treatments can improve participants’ attention. The study has implications for education by shedding light on attention-training methods.


Main Subjects