Culture and Identity: Linking Iranian Identity Components and Cultural Dimensions

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. in TEFL, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor in language education, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

3 Associate Professor in TEFL, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

4 Professor in TEFL, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Iranian identity cannot be conceived of as a uniform monolithic concept. But, thanks to certain upheavals in the history of the country, it has turned into the triple concept of national/Islamic/modern. Hofstede’s (2001) cultural framework represents a well-validated operationalization of culture based on six cultural dimensions  (power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, short-term/long-term orientation, and indulgence/restraint) and this study explores the association between these dimensions and the three components of Iranian identity. To this end, the Cultural Dimensions Scale (CDS) along with the Cultural Attachment Scale (CAS) were administered to a sample of Iranian university students. Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis were employed for data analysis. The results revealed a significant relationship between cultural dimensions and the identity components. It was also found that indulgence is the sole predictor of National Identity, whereas Religious Identity has four predictors, namely, power distance, collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and short-term orientation. And, Western Identity is predicted by power distance and individualism. Finally, the results were discussed and implications for soothing Iranian identity crisis through cultural interventions were provided.

Keywords


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