1Ph.D. Candidate of TEFL, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
2Professor of Applied Linguistics, Kharazmi University, Iran
The current emphasis on higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has inspired many EFL educators to explore the impact of merging different pedagogical teaching and assessment strategies on the enhancement of thinking skills. Responding to such a growing need to investigate the effect of diverse teaching strategies on HOTS, the present study aimed to explore the impact of the integration of portfolio assessment (PA), multiple intelligences (MI), and dialogic feedback (DF) on development of HOTS. Forty participants in two intact advanced classes were randomly assigned to control and treatment groups, receiving writing-based portfolio assessment (WBPA) and MI-oriented portfolio assessment with dialogic feedback (MIWBPADF), respectively. In the experimental group, the participants’ MI was initially measured and the data were used as a basis for grouping learners with the same dominant intelligence type in the same group.The participants in the MI-oriented portfolio assessment with dialogic feedback group received activities compatible with their dominant intelligence. The results of MANOVA revealed that the experimental group outperformed the other group with regard to their higher order thinking skills. The findings underscore the necessity of taking learners’ intelligences as a criterion for task selection and delivering feedback dialogically as instructional techniques for the enhancement of HOTS. This study has implications for teaching higher order thinking in EFL contexts.
Carless, D., Salter, D., Yang, M., & Lam, J. (2011). Developing sustainable feedback practices. Studies in Higher Education, 36(4), 395-407.
Ceci, S. J., & Liker, J. (1986). A day at the races: The study of IQ, expertise, and cognitive complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 115 (3), 225-226.
Christison, M. A. (1996). Applying multiple intelligence theory in the foreign language classroom. MEXTESOL Journal,19(3), 27-43.
Christison, M.A. (1998). Applying multiple intelligences theory in preservice and inservice TEFL education programs.English Teaching Forum, 36(2), 3-13.
Daniel, M. (2005). Modeling the development process of dialogical critical thinking in pupils aged 10 to 12 years. Communication Education, 54(4), 334-354.
Delett, J. S., Barnhardt, S., & Kevorkian, J. A. (2001). A framework for portfolio assessment in the foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 34(6), 559-568.
Emig, J. A. (1983). The web of meaning: Essays on writing, teaching, learning, and thinking. Portsmouth, MA: Boynton/Cook Pub.
Ennis, R.H. (1989). Critical thinking and subject specificity: Clarification and needed research. Educational Researcher, 18(3), 4-10.
Faravani, A. (2006). Investigating the effect of reading portfolios on the Iranian students' critical thinking ability, reading comprehension ability, and reading achievement. Unpublished MA thesis. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
Frijters, S., Ten Dam, G., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2008). Effects of dialogic learning on value-loaded critical thinking. Learning and Instruction, 18(8), 66-82.
Gagne, E. D., Yekovich, C. W. & Yekovich, F. R. (1993). The cognitive psychology of school learning. New York: HarperCollins.
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.
Genesee, F., & Upshur, J. A. (1996). Classroom-based evaluation in second language education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Green, C., & Tanner, R. (2005). Multiple intelligences and online teacher education. ELT Journal, 59(4), 312-321.
Halpern, D. F. (2007). The nature and nurture of critical thinking. In R. J Sternberg, H. L Roediger, & D. F. Halpern (Eds.), Critical thinking in psychology (pp. 1-15). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hamp-Lyons, L., & Condon, W. (2000). Assessing the portfolio: Principles for practice, theory, and research. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Légaré, G. (2002). An investigation of the effect of task design on the development of critical thinking skills by engineering students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Concordia, Montreal, Canada.
Lewis, A., & Smith, D. (1993). Defining higher order thinking. Theory into Practice, 32(3), 131-137.
Liu, E. Z. F., Zhuo, Y.C., & Yuan, S. M. (2004). Assessing higher-order thinking using a networked portfolio system with peer assessment. International Journal of Instructional Media, 31(2), 139.
Maftoon, P., Yazdani Moghaddam, M., Gholebostan, H., & Beh-Afarin, S. R. (2010). Privatization of English Education in Iran: A Feasibility Study. TESL-EJ, 13(4), 1-12.
Newmann, F. M. (1990). Higher order thinking in teaching social studies: A rationale for the assessment of classroom thoughtfulness. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 22(1), 41-56.
Nicol, D. (2010). From monologue to dialogue: Improving written feedback processes in mass higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5), 501-517.
Paul, R. (1992). Critical thinking: What, why, and how. New Directions for Community Colleges, 77, 3-24.
Polite, V. C., & Adams, A. H. (1997). Critical thinking and values clarification through Socratic seminars. Urban Education, 32(2), 256-278.
Publications, R. I. C. (2004). Multiple intelligences: A thematic approach. RIC. Publication.
Resnick, L. B. (1987). Education and learning to think. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Saslow, j., & Ascher, A. (2006). Summit 2. White Plains, N.Y: Pearson Education.
Sorrell, J. M., Brown, H. N., Mary, C. S., & Kohlenberg, E. M. (1997). Use of writing portfolios for interdisciplinary assessment of critical thinking outcomes of nursing students. Nursing Forum, 32(4), 12-24.
Tsui, L. (2002). Fostering critical thinking through effective pedagogy: Evidence from four institutional case studies. Journal of Higher Education, 73, 740-763.
Walker, C. H. (1987). Relative importance of domain knowledge and overall aptitude on acquisition of domain-related information. Cognition and Instruction, 4, 25-42.
Wang, Y., & Liao, H. C. (2008). The application of learning portfolio assessment for students in the technological and vocational education system. Asian EFL Journal, 10(2), 132-154.
Wang, S., & Wang, H.(2012). Organizational schemata of e-portfolios for fostering higher-order thinking. Information Systems Frontiers, 14(2), 395-407.
Wegerif, R. (2007). Dialogic education and technology: Expanding the space of learning. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Yang, N. D. (2003). Integrating portfolios into learning strategy-based instruction for EFL college students. IRAL, 41(4), 293-318.
Zhu, H. (2011). The Application of multiple intelligences theory in task-based language teaching. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(4), 408-412
Zobisch, P. J. (2005). The theory of multiple intelligences and critical thinking.(Order No. 3174529, Capella University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305365080?accountid=26694. (305365080).